Unpublished research report. while at the same time serving the needs of the local population. 2005. initiatives as complex educational changes. as one of the participants in the Guardian-Macmillan debate wondered. The data were coded and analyzed using grounded theory. Analyzing how the global dominance of English in all domains of power is maintained, legitimized and persists in the twenty-first century, Linguistic Imperialism Continued reflects and contributes in important ways to understanding these developments. Moreover, it aims to synthesize and outline the discursive ways in which the current language policy endangers the existing linguistic and cultural diversity of the country. In our review, we did not come across any study that provided a profile of English language teachers in Pakistan. published in the Proceedings of that conference (Shamim 2007a). As quality English-medium schooling stands the preserve of the elites only; therefore, we advocate for the democratization of English and its equitable distribution across all strata of society. This paper focuses on the pedagogical techniques being used by English Language Teachers to develop reading skills at the secondary school level in Lahore, Pakistan. language-in-education programmes in Estonia and Africa. Urdu is symbol of The challenge is to maintain an appr, balance in the choice of language-in-education among individual, societal and, In Pakistan, familiarity with and use of English are indicators of social class and, ‘English medium’ in Pakistan are heavily loaded with economic and socio-cultural, connotations. off late. A reliability analysis was carried out to establish the authenticity and applicability of the tool. The data of this research were Overall, 3,552 learners in these univ, to a questionnaire that was administered to them on a cohort basis in English, classes that were selected using pre-defined criteria. local and global needs and the ‘language apartheid’ which Pakistan is experiencing. Assessment has a strong impact on language teaching and learning and the challenges in assessment hamper the language teachers from designing useful assessment. bi/multilingual education research supports foreign language as medium low-fee schools. This article argues that discussion of the role of English in development fails to recognize the success of narrowly focused community-based projects, in which basic L1 literacy rather than English education is the goal. This is probably due to the availability of appropriate instructional practices in elite schools, which are usually not available in general schools. Available documents for and about English instruction in these schools were also reviewed. It examines in some detail the consequences of current and proposed language in education policies. Donors and recipients, Harvey Smith 17. Importantly, additional motives are related with the importance of using English for the tourism, advertising, and media and entertainment industry. Language is a marker of identity and a tool for repr, On the one hand, the right to study one’s own language is now considered a basic, human right (cf. Unfortunately, Pakistan is still lagging in achieving English literacy, especially in rural areas. Research exploring the role of English in Pakistani education system usually focuses on the use of English as the medium of instruction. Eth zurich dissertations. How can the goal of English for All be, English sufficient for the masses to learn English (which is often their third or, fourth language)? The assessment, practices in all cases focus on assessing content knowledge such as ‘major, barriers to communication’ or ‘characteristics of a good paragraph’ instead of, In terms of physical provision, the findings of the study indicate that the majority, of learners study English sitting in rows in large classes. When two or more languages exchange or get in touch with each other it causes conversion. In Pakistan, English is usually taught, except in elite schools, through grammar translation methods in which the teacher reads an English text followed by translation into Urdu or other local languages, as was done in colonial times. students’ perceptions on the use of speech act in an EFL classroom communication. In this study we intended to understand whether the policy was implemented successfully in the province of Balochistan. should be taught through the medium of English. (We will consider the ‘two-str, in this chapter.) This official rhetoric, of providing ‘equal’ opportunities for learning of English as a potential tool to level, differences among the social classes, without a study of current pro, teachers’ ability to teach English effectively, does not match the o, education policy in Pakistan. Practice: A South-Asian Perspective. Based on evidence gathered through multiple research tools such as a questionnaire survey, classroom observation and interviews with students, teachers, school principals and experts observers, the study finds that early English-medium policy appears counterproductive as most students demonstrate poor English language proficiency. Findings from the study are useful for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers to improve the existing instruction practices and add to the ongoing debate about the spread of English in the world and its effects in the developing countries, such as Pakistan. New Delhi: NCER, postcolonial world. Importantly, behind the rapid spread and intense pursuit of English medium schooling is also a belief that the earlier the child is exposed to the English language, the faster she/he will learn the language. consequences is highlighted by Chambers, a development specialist. The obtained data was an imposed foreign language for communication instead of a ‘familiar’ language, postulates a relationship between underde, language as the official language of a given country. (The two streams of education in Pakistan have alr, Figure 1: Students’ family income (in Pakistani rupees) and proficiency in English, (most recent public examination scores) adapted fr, Similarly, in students’ assessment of their curr, academic domain, the upper group was about twice as heavily repr, categories of ‘good’ and ‘excellent’ compar, Hence, there seems to be a positive relationship betw, economic status and their proficiency in English, probably due to the difference, in opportunities available outside the classroom in the home and community for, learning and using English. This report describes the consultation process and analyses the findings. The core objective of the paper is to critique the exclusionary roles of the current language policy towards the indigenous mother tongues of the majority of the masses. Free online resources always provide a motivating learning environment, enhance learners’ analytical and critical thinking skills, and encourage social interaction between teachers and learners, learners and their peers, and learners and other participants. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. bilingual discourse is commonly used in the classroom (Shamim and Allen 2000; see also Cleghorn and Rollnick 2002 for similar findings from African classrooms). Language and agriculture in the Lao PDR, Khamkheuane Vannasouk and Seetha Khemmarath 4. This can be seen in the proliferation of priv, As mentioned earlier, the decision to start teaching English from grade I is tak, by all elected governments soon after they come into power as a political gestur, rather than as an expression of their political will to pr, gaining widespread literacy in English (Shamim 2008). methodologies and classrooms activities leave little potential for The differential access to English leads to social stratification because of the crucial role English plays in social mobility. Scribd is the world's largest social reading and publishing site. Yes, this is an issue, a seriously growing issue, especially in Pakistan. OTHER LANGUAGES: ENGLISH LANGUAGE: English is one of the official languages of Pakistan (the other being Urdu) and is widely used in the executive, legislative and judicial branches as well as to some extent in the officer ranks of Pakistan's armed forces. the better. Leadership development program for SPELT (Society of Paksitan English Language Teachers), Pakistan. teachers of English, which piqued our interest. this discussion is that English language teaching is frequently unsuccessful, that it does not help children in their educational careers and that it may actually be counterproductive. Linguistic rights, or more specific to this discussion, the right to the choice of language for education is meaningless and turns into, a symbolic act if there is lack of coherence between the language policy and, its implementation plan, as is illustrated by Taylor (2002) thr. language, the role of English, and language policy and social stability. The English language in Pakistan: a brief overview of its history and linguistics This study aimed to develop a scale to enable the English language teaching practitioners to explore if the non-elite schools successfully fulfilled this claim. Four hundred questionnaires were administered to the participants majoring in various disciplines in both social and natural sciences. This study examines the amount of students’ exposure to the school language to account for the link between English-medium policies in low-fee English-medium schools and children's sociocultural ecology. Because of its use in the domains of power, English can be seen as a source of self-improvement and as a means of career success (Mansoor, 2003; Rahman, 2002). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. English as the language for development in Pakistan: Sustainability of ESP projects: A case study fr, Activity types and patterns of interaction in, Multilingual societies and planned linguistic change: New, irst Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Minority, Postcoloniality and English: Exploring language policy and, More than just ‘technology’: English language teaching, , the British Council seeks to make a pow. The language of instruction issue: Reality, aspiration and the wider context, 2. current study utilized descriptive qualitative research design. It begins with British language policies and then goes on to the policies of the state of Pakistan. Drawing on a range of sources, this paper questions whether English medium instruction, as practiced in many schools across Pakistan, has failed. classroom communication namely directive speech act, representative speech act, In addition, the Head of Department in each, university was interviewed using a structured intervie, the general universities was analysed separately from that of the pr. Students are giv, academic literacy since teaching and learning focuses mainly on getting good, grades in the content-based examination. Sraiki and Punjabi, in their homes and they have common parlance. Phillipson (2009) claims that English is no longer a foreign language in Europe. Development: Africa and Beyond: Proceedings of the 7th Int, language-in-education programmes in Estonia and South Africa. Language Planning in Higher Education: Case Study of Pakistan. Many of the factors measured by these questionnaires are complex and apply to a different culture. In the cities, only a small part of the, population, the educated elite, use English (or English and an indigenous language), for their everyday communication. result of the research revealed five types of speech act uttered by the students in EFL language for development. The second part of the report then lays out a proposed strategy for the development of English and English language teaching in Pakistan. In whose language do we – or are we, – compelled or induced to co-ordinate our behaviour? It is not surprising, then, that ther, general sense of dissatisfaction with the current level of English pr, Teachers’ and learners assessment of the curr, language courses highly in terms of meeting their future needs. the study draws samples (245 students, 8 teachers, and 11 school principals) from 11 schools in Pakistan. sustained? Many equate the disproportional predominance and state-patronage of Urdu over other local languages as ‘Urdu imperialism’ as discussed by Rahman(2004). In fact, a person with an ‘English medium’ education is considered, superior in all dimensions compared to someone with an Urdu medium educational, such as countries in South East Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa, as the ‘burden’ of, donor nations, where ‘taxes paid by the citiz, to recipient countries as foreign aid thr, national agencies, ending up as the financing of development projects’, the case study of a donor-funded ELT centr, professional public sector university in Pakistan’s pr, long-term impact on the development of English language skills of the peoples of, engineering students through setting up an EL, in Pakistan. In real time interactions Pit Chamnan and Audrey Cornish 3 education: case study of the 's! Leeds, UK a screening questionnaire for mental health developed by the world at present and analyzed grounded... Such research critical in the backdrop of public’s heavy reliance and feverish pursuit low-fee... 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