Second, there was no organized Black Caucus in the Oklahoma legislature as there was in the Florida legislature, and most importantly, there was no Hispanic Caucus in the Oklahoma legislature. What are some of the factors? The United States had provided pensions for Civil War veterans, actually on very generous terms. By Public Affairs, UC Berkeley| February 12, 2021February 12, 2021. The claims of death range from 39 official to over 300, including aerial bombs. I’m the Associate Dean of Students and Director of the Public Service Center at UC Berkeley, and welcome to the latest offering of the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute series on America’s Unfinished Work with Professor Emeritus Charles Henry. Rosewood was decided in the early ’90s, 1994. Engle, age 30, was the co-owner of Hearts2Heros, a for-profit entity that allegedly was meant to support the military by creating and sending care packages to deployed service members. The basic point is that this shift in public opinion to the left then has prepared more favorable ground for reparations claims, and we see that reflected in some recent successes in reparations. If we look at textbooks in places like Texas, for example, you wouldn’t recognize Tulsa or Rosewood. There was in the Florida legislature and the claimants in Florida were able to frame their argument as a case of being just your land being dispossessed from you and taken away from you unlawfully. One of those involved survivors of Rosewood, and when Rosewood was successful, people in Tulsa started organizing, etc. We got several questions in the chat related to what should or would reparations look like, and you’ve touched on that a little bit, so part could be cash payments. I think that’s a kind of necessary conversation to get to the point where you’re talking about any kind of redress, because as long as we’re arguing different histories and not coming together as a community and seeing this as part of our whole history, then we’re not going to reach a point where we can actually have any meaningful redress. This appealed to Cuban Americans who had their land confiscated by Fidel Castro and the Cuban government, and even though most of them were conservative Republicans, they supported the reparations claim of Rosewood and that was a key in getting through the state legislature. Following the Inequality Policy Brief, here are six ways to minimize the rising economic inequality prevalent in the United States. Notes & limitations Overall limitations. So, we’d seemed to have solved lots of the problems that affected us during that period, including climate change, gender inequality, et cetera. The article was prompted by a book that was published in 1975, called Ecotopia by Ernest Callenbach, and some of you watching might be old enough to remember that book, or even read that book. I mentioned that and I mentioned the National African American History and Culture Museum, because these I see as forms of reparations. If you’re bringing the case, have you been harmed by this action?” If you can’t prove that you’ve been harmed, that your ancestors have been harmed as one thing, that people you know had been harmed, but if you haven’t been harmed it’s difficult for you to bring that case. Sandra Bass: Yeah, absolutely. Fast forward quickly to the turn of the century. Sandra Bass: Oh, I’m sorry, I just want to do a quick time check. Okay, I’m not doing well, so I’m not going to elaborate on the details on this, other than to say Rosewood’s claim for reparations was successful, Tulsa’s was not. Berkeley’s hands are not clean on this, if you want to talk a little bit about that later. And even Lincoln, during the Civil War, was actively exploring the possibility of colonization for Black Americans at some place outside of the United States, whether it be the Caribbean or Africa or Latin America, and was actually at one point told it would be physically impossible to relocate 4 million slaves. Dutch and French governments, after study commissions, have agreed to repatriate stolen art back to Africa. According to background information shared by the county, Mauck is a retired educator, who was first elected to the Berkeley County Council in 2010 and then reelected to six-year terms in 2012 and 2018. One of the things I didn’t talk about when I talked about 40 acres and a mule, was at the same time, they’re talking about 40 acres and a mule, the Homestead Act passes in 1866 and there’s several Homestead Acts. You would see that reflected, for example, in the candidacy of someone like Bernie Sanders, and respondents in another poll favoring cash reparations to descendants of slaves rose from 14% to 29%. Professor Henry will be talking about the case for reparations, and the current movement for providing reparations to the descendants of former U.S. slaves. Therefore, the best that they got out of the Tulsa… Both of these had study commissions, there were financial reparations in Rosewood, the survivors in Tulsa got medals, no financial compensation, okay? During this last period, we had a number of actions going up until from the ’80s and in the ’90s. 40 and most of the presidential candidates ��� Cory Booker, Kamala Harris, Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren, those in the Senate ��� had signed on as co-sponsors of that legislation. One of the people that grew up in the Marcus Garvey Organization was a woman called Audley Moore and she would later develop one of the mid-20th-century Black reparations groups that would take the claim for reparations to the UN among others in 1950. By Friday morning, The Times had tracked more than 85,000 cases in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and three U.S. territories. Professor Henry was Distinguished Fulbright Chair in American History and Politics at the University of Bologna in Italy and also was one of the first two Fulbright-Tocqueville Distinguished Chairs in France teaching at the University of Tours, I hope I pronounced that correctly, and Chancellor Birgeneau also presented Henry with the Chancellors Award for Advancing Institutional Excellence in April 2008. He received his doctorate in political science from the University of Chicago and joined Berkeley in 1981. And no one in my generation knew anything about them. I’m Sandra Bass. Ambulance Authority. There were lawsuits also in Rosewood and there’s an erasure from history that I wanted to talk about. But I see this in cycles that sort of cover generations and reparations doesn’t mean the same thing, or isn’t the things emphasized in certain periods as in other periods. In the case of Berkeley, look at LeConte Hall and who it’s named after, for example. So, there’s a kind of domino effect flowing from the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 and we have action on the local level, as well. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Sandra Bass: Absolutely. I think this is, when we talk about the buildup of microaggressions and that kind of thing, it would be a cathartic thing for people to talk about their experiences in this country on both sides of the issue. Christopher T. Engle, of Bunker Hill, West Virginia, was sentenced today to 41 months of incarceration for wire fraud, U.S. Attorney Bill Powell announced. Sandra Bass: Great. It was the first sort of large mass organization of Blacks petitioning Congress for some sort of pensions and medical care, etc. Kevin Watson Let me just read a paragraph about each case and then talk about the outcomes. A kind of shorthand definition for reparations would be a process that includes acknowledgment, redress and closure, and I think one of the ways I’ve tried to, in this very brief time, encompass a long history of efforts in this regard is the first slide that we have up here, reparations cycles. Kelly Coly Martin Luther King said that Blacks and whites had different definitions of integration, and for whites it simply meant desegregation, the absence of harm. Haas Institute Director john a. powell discusses why these policies will work in slowing the growth in inequality. That doesn’t help you buy a home, for example. Thank you so much. Do you think national reparations is a pathway? I’m going to have to start moving faster than usual. They found it more difficult to get these pensions, in part because they required a birth certificate and many Blacks didn’t have birth certificates in 1860 when they mustered in. And in terms, kind of the trope is, “I want my check,” kind of thing and why should Tiger Woods get a check and all of that. After the success of pushing for civil and political rights in the ’64 Civil Rights Act, the ’65 Voting Rights Act, the Urban League puts forth a martial plan for the Negro saying, “We have to be concerned about economics as well,” as Ella Baker said, “What’s the use of being able to sit at a lunch counter if you don’t have the money to buy a hamburger?” And so, the Urban League is saying, “We could at least do as much for African Americans as we did for those that were displaced by World War II. Around a dozen citizens planned to voice their concerns over how the Berkeley County Council handled the replacement of two elected positions — Elaine Mauck’s appointment to fill the unexpired term of County Clerk John W. Small Jr., and Dan Dulyea’s appointment to the county council seat Mauck vacated in taking her new role. One of the factors for this is that Black soldiers had come back with a new attitude about how they wanted to be treated in the United States, and so we see some resistance that we hadn’t seen in earlier massacres of Blacks, like Wilmington…. And then, the situation evolves from there, the posse goes out, any Black they stop, they question about where this escaped convict is, they shoot Blacks along the way, they torture people to try to get information, they go to the house of Sylvester Carrier, Army war veteran. For one particular reason, in 1988, Japanese Americans received an apology and reparations for the internment of Japanese Americans in the United States. So, even today, we’re finding the consequences of Tulsa. Well, that has helped create the wealth gap that gives whites more wealth than Blacks. Berkeley Count Sheriff Department And we saw, in the last several months, presidential candidate support for reparations, from Marianne Williams saying, “I’ll pay the money now,” to Joe Biden saying, “Oh, well, I think this is something that we could study.” So, the consequence of that is, and I won’t talk about it and you’ve probably seen it, is the California Commission Bill that’s just been signed by the governor. He was the former president of the National Council for Black Studies and the author or editor of eight books and more than 80 articles and reviews on Black politics, public policy and human rights. A very significant case, because it relates to the Black Lives Matter movement and others, is that the Chicago City Council agreed to pay reparations to victims of police torture in a particular precinct in Chicago. Shifting public opinion. By the time Fannie’s husband, James, arrived back home from his job of oiling machinery at the Sawmill, county sheriff Rob Walker was already there and a posse was forming. Case counts and … If they were there at all, it would be a totally different perspective, it was like if you read the white newspapers after Tulsa and the Black newspapers, it was like people were in two different universes. Berkeley County’s sales tax is 8% effective May 1, 2009. There have … So, you’re not actually giving redress to the person who is harmed, which means that with regards to national reparations, we’re beholden to a political context. However, an attorney cannot guarantee success of an H-1B application nor can an attorney obtain an H-1B for an unqualified person. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. If you have one thing that you wanted people to gather from our time together today and really thinking about the possibilities of reparations in the U.S., what would you share? Listed here are fellowship programs reviewed by Career Center counselors. This is from James Baldwin: “People who imagine that history flatters them (as it does indeed, since they wrote it) are impaled on their history like a butterfly on a pin and become incapable of seeing or changing themselves or the world. With that, I’ll share a little bit about Professor Henry, we’ll turn it over to him for his talk and then what we’d like you to do is to put your questions in the chat. Between the period of roughly 1895 and 1915, there were roughly 15 pension associations involving some 5 million Blacks. It had simply been erased from history. I’ve seen other figures that say one-tenth the wealth, but a sort of one-time cash payment of a few thousand dollars really doesn’t close that wealth gap at all. An update from Chancellor Christ on two UC... Dacher Keltner on the science of awe and... Binary stars are all around us, new map of solar... COVID-19 and the media: The role of journalism in a global pandemic, Subscribe to The Berkeleyan, our weekly email newsletter, The latest information on how UC Berkeley is responding to coronavirus. Blacks were largely excluded from that, I think 1.6 million whites benefit from this, 4,000 Blacks got land. Christopher Barnhart Cheryl Saville Dominic S. Orsini, Martinsburg City Police So, that’s sort of the name of the game at the electoral level, although a question I got when we passed it in California was somebody said, “Well, isn’t it kind of superfluous to do this in California because we’re doing it on the national level?”. We have North Carolina, within the last year or so, agreeing to pay reparations to victims of forced sterilization and there were about 7,000 of them in a period from, I think, the 1920s to the 1950s in North Carolina. In fact, Professor Henry mentions in his book that a somewhat flippant remark about the futility of pursuing reparations from a prominent African American political insider, was one of the reasons he wrote his book. The unexpired term of county clerk, to which Mauck has filled, ends Dec. 31, 2022. Charles Henry: Yeah, I’m going to give you the triggering incident in both cases. So, let’s have a Marshall plan for the Negro.”. A very significant factor in this is that the sheriff in Tulsa deputizes 500 whites to serve as his sort of posse and they go into the Black community. This has been wonderful, it’s so appreciative of Professor Henry for sharing his time with us today, and thank you for joining us for this latest offering in the America’s Unfinished Work series with OLLI. We found that in the case of the Japanese American operations, for example. Thank you so much. The Gwinnett County Clerk of Superior Court Richard T. Alexander, Jr., is asking all veterans of all military branches of service to make sure their DD-214 is recorded at the courthouse. Sandra Bass: Yeah, it’s another question that’s related to Isabel Wilkerson’s latest book, Caste, which I think is really important, and I’ll just share one of the questions I’ve often wondered is, if in some possible world reparations did happen, is that sort of a way of brushing off the question of the systemic challenges that Black Americans have faced from slavery on in multiple ways? Sandra Bass: Good morning, everyone. The City of Martinsburg is the county seat Berkeley County is located in the Shenandoah Valley in the Eastern Panhandle region of West Virginia in the United States. My co-author and I looked at a number of classical works from Thomas Moore to Nathaniel Hawthorne to Edward Bellamy and found that even though many of them are written in times of great racial turmoil, race was not even discussed. And so with that, I would like to turn it over to Professor Charles Henry. There simply wasn’t the transportation available, even if you can find the space. So, let me briefly talk about those cases. But the remarkable figure is about a quarter of the American population today can trace their ancestry back to somebody who got some land through the Homestead Act. There was racial violence in 25 cities in the United States, Chicago being the most prominent. R. Greg Garretson Back in the Jurassic period, which was the 1970s, at least at this reading, I co-authored an article called Imagining a Future in America, or the subtitle was No Black Utopias. A number of people who had been working on reparations, and the number of people who weren’t working on reparations, say “Aha! They said that they wanted land. That once we reach that, acknowledge that, then we can have some form of redress and then there has to be some closure on both sides. Georgetown students recently voted to assess student fees to provide reparations to the descendants of the over 200 slaves that were sold to keep that university afloat during a financial crisis. Online Payments - Traffic Tickets and Fines NOTE: Use of a web browser that supports Cookies and Javascript, and enabling such features, is a requirement for searching public case records. Prosecuting Attorney. Joseph Kinser Veterans Day is an official United States Federal holiday that honors people who have served in the U.S. Armed Forces, also known as veterans.. It obviously had been against the law for most of them to be taught to be read and write, so farming was the mode of making a living. This is in the early 1920s, so these are some of the first aerial bombs that people fly over and throw explosives out of. Phone: 304-264-1971 I’m Sandra Bass. So, after the failure of these pension plans, we could turn to the 1960s as the next cycle of reparations demands, and one of the things that’s kind of unique about this cycle is we have a demand on private individuals, corporations, associations, as well as a demand on the government itself. That paycheck stops and they’re on the street, they’re homeless and we see that in a disproportionate number of Blacks in the homeless population. 40, a bill to create a study commission that would issue recommendations in terms of African American reparations. Sandra Bass: Right. The sheriff said he didn’t need them and they leave, and then whites sort of descend on the jail and Blacks come back to the jail and offer their assistance again, it’s refused. So, we see people talking about then some sort of fund that would be used to help Blacks gain assets to close this wealth gap and I could talk further on that, but there are other questions. Probably the most famous land claim, although there were other presentations from Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens and others, but people remember 40 acres and a mule, and indeed that was in Stevens’ initial proposal to the House of Representatives. This legislation was passed and signed by Ronald Reagan and benefited about 120,000 Japanese Americans. The reason that legal cases have had problems historically in the United States, in terms of winning reparations, are three major, I think. Many had been very silent about this, and their kids and grandkids knew very little about it. And then are a number of groups of activists who have pushed reparations for years through the UN. All visitors, litigants and attorneys will be permitted only to enter by appointment or scheduled hearing. 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